|Reverend Jim Jones with wife Marceline & their children|
Unless you live under a rock, you've heard of the Jonestown massacre of 1978. I'll spare you the psychoanalysis of its diabolical leader James Warren Jones, as that could fill a book of its own (and has filled several). I want to talk instead about the role of drugs in the camp and their effect on Jones in particular.
I also want to touch on the odd--we'll call them 'coincidences'--involved in the Jonestown tragedy. This event was the largest mass casualty of American citizens prior to 9/11, dwarfing even the Oklahoma City bombing many times over. The people eliminated by the mass murder-suicide at Jonestown were folks who just so happened to be considered undesirables by the federal government: ex-convicts, drug addicts, welfare recipients, elderly Social Security recipients, white hippie holdovers with socialist views, kids with behavioral problems sent to the Peoples Temple by various state organizations...but mostly, Black people. Lots of them.
Around 70% of the Peoples Temple & Jonestown membership was comprised of Black folks, though not a single Black person held a leadership position in the powerful "inner circle." Despite his alleged anti-capitalist views, many of Jones' closest confidants had direct links to the Military-Industrial Complex, according to Wikipedia. Larry and Deborah Layton were the children of Laurence Layton, former chief of the Chemical Warfare Division of the U.S. Army. Their mother was the daughter of an IG Farben stockbroker.
What's more, Congressman Leo Ryan--gunned down at the airstrip on his way out of Jonestown--was loathed by the CIA. Ryan was the only Congressperson to be killed in the line of duty in American history--shot more than 20 times for good measure. Amazing 'coincidence' indeed. More on him later.
Jim Jones got his start on the preaching circuit in Indiana. He fashioned his style after a Black cult leader named Father Divine--a boisterous proponent of civil rights, integration & peace who believed himself to be God. For the most part, Jim's years in Indiana were filled with textbook evangelical preaching & (fake) faith healings that drew in the old school Christian crowd, both Black & white. That was one of the main attractions of Jones' church--it was integrated at a time & place where segregation was the standard, years before the Civil Rights movement. This was a relatively drama-free time for Jones & his loyal wife Marceline, who seemed genuinely devoted to the spirit of brotherhood & equality for all people. He attracted members by "walking the walk"--going out into the community & negotiating with slumlords, sending poor kids to college or doing other things to help those in need. This is what set Jim Jones apart from other preachers who only spewed hot air from the pulpit. This all seemed wonderful in the beginning. And it was.
|Father & Mother Divine, after whom Jones fashioned his preaching|
From the very start, Jim Jones relied on stimulants--prescription amphetamines--to keep his energy up. It started innocently enough with occasional use to overcome fatigue during big projects but quickly escalated to a daily thing. Amphetamine use can cause a sort of mania in which a user feels god-like, super competent or as if they can see the world clearly for the first time. At least in the beginning. As time wears on, side effects like paranoia, hallucinations & exhaustion can begin to mount due to dopamine overload & sleep deprivation if the drugs are abused.
As with most serious speed habits, Jones required sleep aids to help take the edge off at bedtime. Barbiturates were his drug of choice for that. In the '50s & '60s it was quite easy to secure a prescription for these medications, as they were prescribed for everything from PMS & headaches to obesity & depression (which is ironic since they can also cause depression if abused, not unlike alcohol). The uppers made it possible for him to be a living example of his "socialist" work ethic, which included long fiery sermons & work days of about 20 hours for each church member. (Sleep deprivation is a well-known mind control tactic & many Jonestown survivors recall being utterly exhausted during these heady early years). Unfortunately they weren't afforded the luxury of drugs as they were forbidden in the ministry for everyone except Jones, unbeknownst to the flock.
|Jones in Redwood Valley, CA 1974 (photo credit SDSU Library)|
As time progressed & the dose of speed grew, so did Jones' paranoia. In July 1965 he insisted on moving his Indiana following to a cave in Redwood Valley, California which would supposedly be the only place on Earth that would survive a nuclear holocaust. He packed up 140 of his members & bused them to the remote hamlet of Ukiah, CA to await the coming Armageddon, which he said would occur on July 15th 1967. This is where things started to grow darker. But it was a gradual descent into darkness. He started preaching against the Bible, claiming that it was the white man's way of keeping Black people enslaved. His clan grew vegetables to sustain themselves while awaiting the End of Days. When the world didn't end in '67, Jones decided to move his people to a more urban area where he could gain a bigger following. The small-town feel of Ukiah wasn't feeding his ego sufficiently anymore & he was being accused of welfare fraud by the locals.
Gaining Power in the Peoples Temple
Jones maintained churches in Indiana, the Redwood Valley & every other location he'd previously lived while continuing to expand into Los Angeles & San Francisco. This is where his narcissism shifted into high gear. Not only was he named "Humanitarian of the Year" by the Los Angeles Herald-Examiner, he was praised by the likes of Angela Davis, Harvey Milk & Ronald Reagan for his efforts organizing protests & marches around the city at a moment's notice. His congregation was so large it could sway an election, giving him a significant amount of clout. City life was exactly what Jones had been craving & it was this double-edged sword of increased praise & scrutiny that would ultimately lead to his undoing. As speed habits tend to do, his dose increased over the years along with the need for higher doses of barbiturates to knock him out. And he often didn't sleep at all. He took to wearing sunglasses indoors during sermons to protect his sensitive eyes from the light.
As his following grew, so did his ego. Vicious beatings occurred when members stepped out of line. A pedophile once had his genitals smashed & beaten with a water hose on a table after approaching a child in the Temple. One woman was made to defecate in a can on stage in front of an audience. Children were whipped & paddled in front of their parents, leaving marks all over their bodies. Defectors began to mysteriously disappear & die. Jones propositioned both women & men in the Temple for sex, openly cheating on his devoted wife. He was arrested for attempting to have sex in a public restroom with a male police officer in Los Angeles but managed to get the charges expunged using his political connections (though this incident would later come back to bite him). This was undoubtedly the high point of Jim Jones' career: he had all the sex, drugs, political connections, adoration & control he could ever want. He felt invincible & let it go to his head. Little did he know trouble was brewing.
"Reverend" Jim Jones no longer maintained even the thinnest veil of Christian belief by this point, once lobbing a Bible across the room during a sermon for some reason known only to him. Socialism & Communism were his talking points now, and he used these themes to convince members to turn over ALL their savings & possessions to the Temple. (Even though this is not how socialism works whatsoever). He promised members a land of milk & honey somewhere exotic, perhaps in the Guyanese jungle or on an island somewhere remote...maybe even Russia. He just needed to secure the funds first.
What members didn't know is Jones was siphoning a giant chunk of personal savings into a secret account from their tithing in addition to paying for land in Guyana. The elderly turned over their Social Security checks to Jones each month, as did the welfare recipients with their food stamps & other benefits. Ditto for the disabled & veterans. Wealthy members cashed in their 401k's, sold their homes & even handed over their jewelry mid-sermon when called out by Jones for trying to be "superior" to their less fortunate brothers & sisters. Meanwhile all were expected to volunteer nearly all their free time doing Temple business.
In August of 1977, a damning article in New West magazine was published & exposed Jones' dirtiest secrets, including several accounts of harsh punishments against Temple members including children. Some disgruntled defectors had gone to the publication & spilled all the tea. The Temple tried its best to prevent it from going to print by calling the publication's headquarters hundreds of times, but to no avail. However, by the time the article hit the press its subject was already thousands of miles away in the Guyanese jungle. His paranoia had allowed him to stay one step ahead of the media but he couldn't outrun them forever.
The article in New West marked a turning point for the Peoples Temple--the point where they fled to Jonestown & began the countdown to their destruction.
|Thick "greenheart" jungle near Jonestown|
This excerpt from The New York Review of Books explains why Guyana was the natural choice for Jones to set up shop:
"So few of the accounts of Jonestown have bothered to examine searchingly why it happened where it did. Overwhelmingly, the books and movies fail to acknowledge the fundamentally intertwined relationship of the United States with this tiny republic in its sphere of influence. This entwining is such that a Guyanese national song usurps Woody Guthrie’s “This Land is Your Land,” swapping “the Redwood Forest” for “the greenheart forest”—as some 1,000 People’s Temple members, in fact, did when they moved from California’s Redwood Valley into the dense mass of Guyana’s famously impenetrable greenheart trees. The entanglement is built into the very structure of the relationship: Guyana’s independence was midwifed by covert CIA agents and American labor union emissaries, who placed Forbes Burnham in power." (Emphasis mine)
Life in Jonestown
|Early Jonestown residents in Dashikis|
The early days in Jonestown were described by survivors as the happiest time of their lives. Those were the days before Jim arrived, to be clear. They worked their asses off to clear land in the jungle & build shelter, but the camaraderie & natural beauty of the land was everything they'd been promised & more. Meanwhile, Black Temple members signed over up to $65,000 in monthly welfare payments to Jones, funding the commune on that money alone for a whole year.
And then more people showed up. And more. And more still.
Food rations ran dangerously low as the infertile land failed to produce. The camp was never meant to hold 1000 people--what was Jones thinking? He wasn't. He was stoned off his skull, rambling over the loudspeaker 20+ hours a day while trying to convince himself he was God. He had little hand in the daily running of Jonestown--the down & dirty work that kept the place alive. His inner circle kept things in order & cleaned up his messes while the other 85% did the grunt work. And there was much grunt work to be done. Average sleep times for Jonestown residents ranged from 0-4 hours per night depending on Jones' mood. According to Guyana's Prime Minister, the only reason Jones was able to operate as he did in Guyana was because of the glowing endorsements from First Lady Rosalynn Carter, Walter Mondale & Mayor George Moscone of San Francisco.
Despite the appearance of a utopia, Jim felt stifled in Guyana. This audience was too small. There was nowhere to go with the performance...no new crowds to win over. No accolades or awards. Just the same faces day in & day out. So to compensate he kicked his bad behavior up a notch, becoming more brutal & controlling to ensure no one dare run away or question his authority. He had his followers make deceptively cheerful videos promoting the commune. The drug abuse escalated to new depths too, adding IV drugs like Demerol to the mix. He had his personal nurses shoot him up in front of his sons occasionally.
His health took a dangerous turn for the worse. He became bloated & puffy like a heart failure patient. He suffered fevers & developed a relentless cough. Both he & his followers were convinced he wasn't long for this world. Yet the insanity continued, often in the form of "white night" suicide drills or all-night vigils where members stood guard with rakes & sickles expecting U.S. invaders to descend at any moment. Things were truly spiraling out of control.
|Note: drugs were "smuggled" into Guyana.|
A day in Jonestown was tightly controlled from start to finish. After the day's work ended, Temple members would attend several hours of activities in a pavilion, including classes in socialism. Jones compared this schedule to the North Korean system of eight hours of work followed by eight hours of study. According to Wikipedia, this also comported with the Temple's practice of gradually subjecting its followers to sophisticated mind control and behavior modification techniques borrowed from North Korea and Mao Zedong's China. Mind control...duly noted.The abuse tactics of Jim Jones at Jonestown are often overshadowed by the shocking deaths, but they bear mentioning. As punishments, he employed sensory deprivation, starvation, drugging, psychic driving, humiliation, sleep deprivation & psychological terror (i.e. putting a snake on an elderly woman with a snake phobia) among other documented CIA torture methods. Although Jonestown contained no prison and no capital punishment, various other cruel & unusual punishments were used. Methods included imprisonment in a tiny plywood box and forcing children to spend a night at the bottom of a well, sometimes upside-down. For some members who attempted to run away, drugs such as Thorazine, sodium pentathol, chloral hydrate, Demerol, and Valium were administered in an "extended care unit".
|Was it the drugs? Cancer? AIDS?|
Could he have just been a twisted, sadistic prick who happened to favor the same methods & have access to the same drugs as the CIA in their MK-ULTRA experiments? Absolutely. But when you combine that with the scale & sophistication of the Jonestown Agricultural Project as a whole, it starts to look more like a structured experiment than a religious cult. By the time followers were instructed to "drink the Kool-Aid," they were so exhausted & mentally worn they likely welcomed death...at least the ones who drank it willingly. They'd also been through countless fake suicide drills so they had no way of knowing this one was the real deal until it was too late. More mind fuckery. Most shockingly, Jones instructed the adults to kill the children & babies first, which would've ensured their own compliance by inducing overwhelming hopelessness & guilt.
For a sickly drug addled madman, Jones sure was measured & methodical.
Death in Jonestown
It all came to a head when Congressman Leo Ryan was convinced by some concerned family members to take a trip down to Guyana & inspect the conditions of Jonestown firsthand. Congressman Ryan had a long history of similar hands-on investigations, much to the 3-letter organizations' chagrin. He once went undercover & got himself booked into Folsom State Prison to look into the conditions there. Before that, he'd served as a substitute teacher in a Black community to investigate abhorrent conditions. He had plans in 1978 to go undercover yet again at the Postal Service to look into complaints of bad working conditions. He would not live to complete that project.
Mr. Ryan was not well-liked by the CIA due to his involvement in passing the Hughes-Ryan Act, which banned secret paramilitary ops that weren't approved by Congress and the president. This severely restricted the agency's covert operations internationally & caused frustration within the CIA. But this wasn't the only reason he was disliked. In 1975, Ryan leaked info about the CIA's involvement in the Angolan Civil War to a CBS anchorman named Dan Schorr. A significant transgression.
But wait, there's more.
In '77 & '78, Leo Ryan put pressure on the CIA to reveal its full involvement in MK-ULTRA type mind control experiments. One of these allegedly included subject Donald DeFreeze, a major player in the kidnapping of Patty Hearst. As an inmate in Vacaville prison, DeFreeze claimed he was subjected to experiments in which he was exposed to stress, isolation & drugs like mescaline & Artane and "programmed" to commit high-level crimes by CIA agents. Since DeFreeze's death, the CIA's own documents have confirmed that MK-ULTRA tests were run at Vacaville prison during DeFreeze's sentence in 1974, so that's not up for debate. That Congressman Ryan was pressuring the secretive agency to reveal their unethical human experiments definitely would've earned him a target on his back.
Did I mention he was the only Congressperson to ever be killed in the line of duty?
|Congressman Ryan after stabbing attempt in Jonestown|
Right. Ryan's crew arrived at Jonestown on November 14, 1978. Everything looked hunky dory...suspiciously calm on the final day & evening. After an uncharacteristically big meal, Ryan spoke briefly to the crowd & said something to the effect of "you guys seem to think this is the best thing that's ever happened to you," after which the exhausted crowd clapped & cheered for a full minute in a drone-like manner. Ryan looked sheepish & uneasy. The next day he would be passed a note by a defector who wanted out & his fate would be sealed.
|Port Kaituma airstrip where Congressman Ryan & others were slain (credit: SDSU Library)|
To put things in perspective: A total of 14 people out of nearly 1,000 wanted to leave Jonestown that day. Think about that for a second. Jones still had control of over 900 human beings. All of his inner circle, his kids...everyone he loved stayed with him in Jonestown by choice. He still had millions of dollars & assets & as many drugs as his body could hold. According to the New York Times, he left $7 million to consul for the Soviet Union in Georgetown, Fyodore Timofeyev after the murder-suicides. Before leaving Jonestown for the airstrip, Congressman Ryan had told Garry that he would issue a report that would describe Jonestown "in basically good terms". Ryan stated that none of the 60 relatives he had targeted for interviews wanted to leave, the 14 defectors constituted a very small portion of Jonestown's residents, and even if 200 of the 900+ wanted to leave, "I'd still say you have a beautiful place here." Despite Garry's report, Jones told him, "I have failed." Garry reiterated that Ryan would be making a positive report, but Jones maintained that "all is lost."
So why did he decide everyone HAD TO DIE? What secrets did those 14 defectors know that couldn't make it back to the States? Why did they chase Leo Ryan down & shoot him over 20 times when he had nothing ill to report about Jonestown? Why can Jones be heard on the final tape telling one of his lackeys to "get Dwyer out of here" repeatedly when the only "Dwyer" in Jonestown was a man who had accompanied Ryan's crew--a man suspected to have ties to the CIA? Jones' wife, lovers, little boy...even Jones himself would all die that day. Why would this "Dwyer" be the exception? "Take Dwyer on down to the East house before something happens to him" were his exact words. He then repeats "No, not Ujara. I said DWYER." Even his henchmen are baffled.
|Richard Dwyer, far right|
"CIA & Jonestown" vid that shows Richard Dwyer during airstrip shooting
There were also claims in the lawsuit that massive amounts of 'mind control drugs' were found at Jonestown. A full list can be found here. I've always personally wondered where these drugs came from, how they made it to the middle of the Guyanese jungle in such quantities & why such immaculate records were kept on the use of said drugs. Every dose was accounted for on paper, though many of the barbiturates were claimed to have been used in the nursery (clearly BS as Jones was consuming them).
But there would be no legal need to keep such extensive records of the medications used by the camp...so why did they do it? Where did they source the cyanide from? The guns & ammo? Why did they record so many of their "sermons"--including the final death ceremony--on tape? Who was all of this documentation for? If the drugs were smuggled into Guyana as alleged by the Associated Press & other sources, one would not want any records of their existence because they would be illegal. Yet it exists. Why? For whom?
|"White Night" recording from FBI's collection|
While the tapes could be chalked up to Jones' narcissism & a desire to leave some sort of twisted legacy behind, the immaculate medical records & other oddities cannot. The Ryans’ lawsuit was dismissed for reasons that were never disclosed.
There's a theory that perhaps Jones was suffering from advanced stages of AIDS & related dementia at the time of death, though this has never been proven. His symptoms--weight loss of 30-40 lbs, progressive fungal infection of the lungs, night sweats & mental/cognitive instability--would've aligned with this. In fact his personal physician gave him only "weeks to live" at the time of the massacre, though this sounds a bit exaggerated (particularly the alleged blood pressure of 300 & the fever of 105-106*F). It's more likely he had just worn his body down from years of heavy drug abuse & couldn't handle the harsh jungle conditions of Guyana, but the theory is intriguing when you factor in his prior residence in San Francisco--a hub for HIV in the early years--& his promiscuous bisexual lifestyle.
|Body language speaks volumes|
What Went Wrong?
Trying to determine whether Jim Jones was genuine in the beginning & merely spun out of control due to power & drugs or always had purely evil motives is nigh impossible. Was it always supposed to end this way? Did Jones himself intend to die that day with his people? Certainly, his escalating drug habit affected his ability to think & control his emotions. But that almost looks even more suspicious: how did a greatly weakened, deathly ill man who hadn't had a good night's sleep since the '60s get 918 people to drink poison?
Even more baffling are his connections to the CIA, such as his friendship with agent Dan Mitrione. The two met in childhood & possibly again in Belo Horizonte, Brazil in the 1960's for unknown purposes. Did Jim train under Dan while in Brazil? Even his #1 biographer Tim Reiterman doesn't know how to account for this lost time in S. America. Jones admits to seeking Mitrione out & meeting with his family while in Brazil, which is...odd. How many people do you know with this many coincidental CIA connections who go on to become famous preachers with high-level political backing & the money to carve out a self-named settlement halfway around the world?
"Jonestown was a CIA mind control experiment" sounds a lot crazier than what may have actually happened. One man, funded & helped along by people in the government at various times--set up an agricultural & medical project in the jungle away from prying media eyes where he could covertly continue certain medical experiments curtailed by the Church Senate hearings & Leo Ryan's snooping. Anyone who pulled off the level of welfare fraud Jones did would've certainly faced big problems with the various 3-letter agencies, yet he was able to not only continue his brutal 'ministry' but do so with the blessing of major political figures on the West Coast. If anyone can figure out how to do this without the government knowingly turning a blind eye or aiding in the venture, they've got a bright & prosperous future ahead.
|Dan Mitrione: government advisor for the CIA in Latin America|
When you put all of this together, a disturbing picture emerges--even creepier than the cult suicide angle. The bare facts are: Jonestown's dead were comprised of the same undesirable groups that had previously been subjected to mind control experiments throughout America's history. The cyanide deaths happened after the assassination of a known CIA enemy (Congressman Ryan) & only 3 years after the very public Church Senate hearings. The Congressman's death would've looked very bad for the CIA if the other deaths hadn't happened to overshadow it. The 14 defectors had spent enough time in Jonestown to see & experience what was being done to people & might've gone back & started a media storm. That would've jeopardized whatever was taking place covertly in the commune.
The CIA had allegedly stopped all MK-ULTRA style mind control experiments in 1973--one year before Jonestown was established. After the Church Committee Senate hearings in 1975, it would've been too big a liability for the agency to get caught in something like a mass "cult mind control" experiment on poor minorities, so that might help explain the massacre itself. The White Night suicide drills were a last resort 'panic switch' to pull if the truth threatened to leak out, which it did when Ryan & his crew showed up. Jones was too volatile to be in charge of such a project after becoming addicted to hard drugs & allowing his physical health to deteriorate so badly...this was their emergency exit plan. Maybe it was more than a mind control experiment. Other substances have been tested on prisoners, orphans, soldiers & the mentally ill in this country that had nothing to do with mind control, such as dioxins & various other dermatological agents. (See: "Acres of Skin: Human Experiments at Holmesburg Prison")
Excerpt from the Church Committee hearings
Whatever the case, the victims were treated as villains in the aftermath, mocked in the press & left unclaimed in funeral homes for years. No city officials wanted to bury the bodies in their cities for fear of attracting "fanatical cultists" or other ridiculous nonsense. Kool-Aid jokes drowned out serious discourse; the official narrative was one of mass suicide rather than murder despite the camp being surrounded by armed gunmen & many people being injected with cyanide. "Those people" were nothing more than wild-eyed socialists--not true American patriots. They were barely considered human, much less American. It was a shameful commentary on how we view disenfranchised victims in this country & made the whole thing look that much more suspicious.
|Revolting photo of Rep. Ryan shows disregard for victims|
Just as suspected, only a few close family members mourned for the 918 deceased, 1/3rd of whom were children & another 1/3rd elderly or disabled. One brave soul named Christine Miller can be heard speaking out on the final tape against suicide only to be shouted down by angry peers who seem eager to die. Does this mean the majority drank the poison "willingly"? Only if you consider ritualistic torture, sleep deprivation, starvation, years of fake suicide drills, stealing of all your resources back home & other methods of brainwashing to have no effect on a person's decision-making abilities.
Make no mistake: What the adults did to the children & elderly in Jonestown is unforgivable. But how much agency did they have by this point? They were surrounded by armed gunmen & death nurses with syringes full of potassium cyanide. On Day 1 of arrival at Jonestown, Jim confiscated everyone's passports & made an announcement they would not be returning to the States unless it was in a box, according to one defector. So there's that. The inner circle could've certainly overpowered Jones & turned things around but they chose not to. Maria Katsaris, Annie Moore, Larry Schacht, Carolyn Layton & James McElvane helped Jim do what he could not have done alone by that point so they are also culpable. Attempting to determine who died by their own hand 'for the cause' & who was coerced against their will is a futile exercise.
Four months after the tragedy, Mike Prokes, who'd served as media spokesperson for the Peoples Temple after originally joining as an informant, called a press conference during which he read a chilling statement calling for a second look at what caused the deaths at Jonestown. After finishing his statement, he went to the hotel bathroom, turned on the sink & shot himself. His suicide note concluded: "If my death doesn’t prompt another look at what brought about the end of Jonestown, then life wasn’t worth living anyway." Surprisingly little attention was paid to this event in the media despite its implications & proximity to the actual Jonestown tragedy.
Over 40 years have passed since the events in Jonestown. Unfortunately, little has changed in that time in regards to how people talk about Jones or his followers. References to "demons," "evil spirits" & other religious malarkey heavily litters the comment section of every Jonestown video on Youtube. Everyone is convinced that THEIR brand of spiritual voodoo is immune to this sort of manipulation, which is offensive to the victims & survivors. The only difference between a religion & a cult is the number of followers. The same people shooting down the possibility of CIA involvement are using Dark Age terminology about devils & demon possession to describe Jim Jones or calling the victims "crazy," which is pretty damn hypocritical.
|Green Berets bag up the bodies for transport|
Another common view is that the people deserved what they got if they were "stupid" & "docile" enough to go along with it. After all, what could possibly convince an intelligent person to drink poison? While this cruel victim-blaming doesn't even warrant a response, this quote from defector Deborah Layton-Blakey regarding a fake "white night" suicide drill is pretty enlightening:
"Mrs. Blakey says she had drunk the liquid that night because “the whole pavilion was surrounded by guards. You also knew that if it was not the real thing and you said. ‘No,’ and lived through it, you'd have your butt kicked severely. After a while, after you continually had these ‘white nights,’ after you'd seen your best friends beaten up and you were estranged from your family, after a while you just wanted be dead.”
Additional Suggested Reading/Listening:
Transmissions From Jonestown podcast series (Youtube)
Laura Johnston-Kohl's personal Peoples Temple photo album (Flickr)
Alternative Consideration of Jonestown & The Peoples Temple (SDSU.com)
The Black Hole of Guyana: The Untold Story of The Jonestown Massacre (John Judge)
Jim Hougan's writings on The Peoples Temple & Jim Jones (JimHougan.com)